My research focuses on criminal law and philosophy. My main expertise is in the criminal law’s incapacity rules, such as insanity, diminished responsibility, and infancy.


  1. Windle Revisited’ [2018] Crim LR 987 [paywalled article; final draft]
  2. ‘Proportionality’s Lower Bound’ (2021) 15 Crim Law and Philos 393-405 [open access]

Work in progress

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